Posición social y obesidad en población chilena: mediadores y moderadores psicológicos

Social position and obesity in Chilean population: Psychological mediators and moderators

Belén Salinas Rehbein , Catalina Becerra Muñoz , Báltica Cabieses , Manuel S. Ortiz

Suma Psicológica, (2022), 29(1), pp. 11-19.

Recibido el 9 de agosto de 2021
Aceptado el 10 de diciembre de 2021

https://doi.org/10.14349/sumapsi.2022.v29.n1.2

Resumen

Introducción/objetivo: la obesidad es un problema de salud mundial que ha sido vinculada con la posición social de las personas. Si bien la evidencia que relaciona estas variables es clara, se ha puesto menos atención a los mecanismos por medio de los cuales estas variables pueden asociarse. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la posición social se relacionaba directamente con obesidad abdominal e indirectamente vía percepción de discriminación, afectividad negativa y calidad de la dieta, y el rol moderador del apoyo social. Método: 420 funcionarios de una universidad chilena. Se midió el perímetro de cintura como proxy de obesidad, se utilizaron instrumentos de autorreporte para variables psicológicas y conductuales. Resultados: análisis de ecuaciones estructurales revelaron que la posición social no se asoció directamente con obesidad abdominal, pero sí a través de una secuencia de mediación que incluyó la percepción de discriminación, afectividad negativa y calidad de la dieta. El apoyo social no moderó estas relaciones. Conclusión: se identifican mecanismos que median el nexo entre posición social y obesidad abdominal. Se destaca la relevancia de considerar variables psicológicas y conductuales subyacentes en esta relación.


Palabras clave:
Inequidad social, estatus socioeconómico, discriminación, dieta, obesidad

Abstract

Introduction/objective: Obesity is a health problem worldwide that has been linked to social position. Although the evidence linking these variables is sound, little attention has been paid to the mechanisms by which these variables can be associated. We sought to determine whether social position is directly related to abdominal obesity and indirectly via perceived discrimination, negative affectivity and diet quality, and the moderating role of social support. Method: Four hundred and twenty participants from a Chilean University were selected. Obesity was measured through waist circumference and self-reported measures were used to asses psychological and behavioral variables. Results: Structural equation modeling allowed us to estimate that social position was not directly related to abdominal obesity, but indirectly via a sequenced mechanism that included perceived discrimination, negative affectivity and diet quality. Social support did not moderate these associations. Conclusion: We identified underlying mechanisms that mediate the association between social position and abdominal obesity. We highlight the relevance that psychological and behavioral variables has in obesity.


Keywords:
Social inequity, socioeconomic status, discrimination, diet, obesity

Artículo Completo
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