Estrategias de aceptabilidad de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano: una revisión sistemática

Acceptability of strategies for human papillomavirus vaccination: A systematic review

Héctor Julio Benavides Cabuya , Elsa Yicelis Polo Peña , Diana María Rodríguez Araujo , Paola Tovar Rodríguez , Claudia Pineda-Marín

Suma Psicológica, (2020), 27(2), pp. 125-141.

Recibido el 30 de agosto de 2019
Aceptado el 16 de julio de 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/sumapsi.2020.v27.n2.7

Resumen

El cáncer de cuello uterino es la cuarta causa de cáncer en mujeres, siendo el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) su mayor factor de riesgo. Este virus produce, además, otros tipos de cáncer e infecciones que afectan a hombres y a mujeres. La vacuna del VPH ha mostrado eficacia y seguridad en su prevención, sin embargo, se han evidenciado barreras que disminuyen su aceptación en las comunidades. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las estrategias más efectivas en la intervención comunitaria con el fin de mejorar la aceptabilidad de la vacunación contra el VPH. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, Medline y Google Académico de junio a julio de 2019, sin restricciones temporales, en idioma inglés y español. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos que evaluaran estrategias para mejorar la vacunación contra el VPH. Se revisaron 22 estudios que evaluaban estrategias de intervención comunitaria y se identificaron, principalmente tres: el uso de información y formación de tipo virtual, el involucramiento tanto de padres, madres o cuidadores como del personal sanitario, así como el involucramiento de los hombres y de las personas de orientación sexual diversa como población objetivo.


Palabras clave:
Virus del papiloma humano, VPH, vacunación, cáncer de cuello uterino, intervención comunitaria, movimiento antivacunas

Abstract

Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in women, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being its major risk factor. This virus also produces other types of cancer and infections that affect men and women. The HPV vaccine has shown efficacy and safety in its prevention, however, barriers have been evident that decrease its acceptance in communities. The objective of this study is to identify the most effective strategies in community intervention to improve the acceptability of HPV vaccination. A systematic review was conducted in Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, Medline, and Google Scholar from June to July 2019, without time constraints, in English and Spanish. We included clinical trials evaluating strategies to improve HPV vaccination. We reviewed 22 studies evaluating community intervention strategies, and identified mainly three: the use of virtual information and training, involvement of parents and/or caregivers as well as health personnel, and involvement of men and people of diverse sexual orientation as a target population.


Keywords:
Human papillomavirus, HPV, vaccination, cervical cancer, communitarian intervention, anti-vaccine movement

Artículo Completo
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