Valoración emocional de imágenes y temperamento en preescolares: papel de la edad y la valencia

Emotional appraisal of images and temperament in preschoolers: Role of age and valence

Verónica Adriana Ramírez , María Soledad Segretin , Sebastián Lipina , Eliana Ruetti

Suma Psicológica, (2020), 27(2), pp. 80-87.

Recibido el 11 de noviembre de 2019
Aceptado el 13 de julio de 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/sumapsi.2020.v27.n2.2

Resumen

La valoración es una etapa crucial del procesamiento emocional que prepara para la acción. Durante este proceso se generan distintas respuestas a partir de la evaluación de aspectos emocionales de los estímulos. Estas variaciones pueden deberse a la influencia de características individuales. La literatura señala al temperamento como uno de los factores asociados a las diferencias en la valoración emocional y el afrontamiento. Este trabajo analiza la relación entre la valoración emocional de estímulos visuales y características temperamentales obtenidas por medio del Cuestionario de Conducta Infantil (CBQ). Para esto, 198 preescolares de cuatro y cinco años valoraron 15 imágenes (negativas, neutras y positivas) y se analizaron estas valoraciones en función de las características temperamentales. Se encontró mayor cantidad de valoraciones negativas a los cuatro años que a los cinco (p = .056, η² parcial = .031), y de valoraciones positivas en el grupo con puntaje alto de esfuerzo de control en comparación con el de puntaje bajo (p = .020, η² parcial = .029). Esto sugiere una asociación entre la valoración emocional, la edad y el esfuerzo de control. Este resultado podría deberse a que las niñas y los niños estuvieran desviando su atención de los aspectos negativos de los estímulos.


Palabras clave:
Valoración emocional, temperamento, desarrollo emocional, preescolares, diferencias individuales

Abstract

Emotional appraisal is a crucial stage of emotional processing that prepares for action (coping). During this process different responses are generated from the evaluation of emotional aspects of the stimuli. These variations may be due to the influence of individual characteristics. The literature points to temperament as one of the factors associated with differences in emotional appraisal and coping. This paper analyzes the relationship between the emotional appraisal of visual stimuli and temperamental characteristics, obtained through the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). For this purpose, 198 preschoolers aged 4 and 5 assigned one of three possible emotional expressions to 15 images (negative, neutral and positive) and then compared the number of appraisals according to temperamental characteristics. Higher number of negative appraisals were found in the 4-year group compared to the 5-year group (p = .056, η² partial = .031), and of positive appraisals in the group with high effortful control score compared to the low score group (p = .020, η² partial = .029), suggesting an association between emotional assessment, age and effortful control. This result could be due to the fact that children were diverting they attention from the negative aspects of stimuli.


Keywords:
Emotional appraisal, temperament, emotional development, preschoolers, individual differences

Artículo Completo
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