Apoyo social de familia, profesorado y amigos, ajuste escolar y bienestar subjetivo en adolescentes peruanos

Social support from family, teachers and friends, school adjustment and subjective well-being of Peruvian adolescents

Melchor Gutiérrez , José M. Tomás , Ana María Pastor

Suma Psicológica, (2021), 28(1), pp. 17-24.

Recibido el 21 de febrero de 2020
Aceptado el 18 de septiembre de 2020

https://doi.org/10.14349/sumapsi.2021.v28.n1.3

Resumen

Introducción: La psicología positiva ha señalado la importancia del bienestar subjetivo de los adolescentes, por ser un precursor del desarrollo positivo de los jóvenes. La investigación resalta la importancia del apoyo social percibido y el ajuste escolar como determinantes del bienestar adolescente. Por ello, este artículo tiene como finalidad analizar las relaciones de la percepción de apoyo social (de familia, profesorado, amigos) con el bienestar subjetivo de los adolescentes, mediado por su ajuste escolar. Método: Participaron 1035 estudiantes peruanos de educación secundaria, con edades entre 12 y 16 años. Se probaron dos modelos teóricos con variables latentes, uno con mediación total y otro con mediación parcial. Resultados: Los resultados del modelo final mostraron una alta capacidad predictiva del apoyo social sobre el ajuste escolar y de este sobre el bienestar de los adolescentes. Además, se encontró un potente efecto del apoyo de la familia sobre el bienestar subjetivo de los adolescentes peruanos. Conclusión: Estos resultados contribuyen a resaltar que el bienestar subjetivo es un constructo central en el contexto de la psicología positiva y en el desarrollo positivo de los jóvenes, por lo que debería cultivarse más abundantemente en las escuelas.


Palabras clave:
Psicología positiva, apoyo social percibido, adaptación escolar, satisfacción con la vida, emociones positivas y negativas

Abstract

Introduction: Positive psychology has highlighted the importance of adolescents’ subjected well-being as a precursor of the positive youth development. Research in this context highlights the importance of perceived social support and school adjustment as determinants of adolescent well-being. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to analyze the relationships of the perception of social support (from family, teachers, and friends) and the adolescents’ subjective well-being, mediated by their school adjustment. Method: Participants were 1035 Peruvian Secondary Education students, aged between 12 and 16 years old. Two theoretical models with latent variables have been estimated and tested, one with total mediation and the other with partial mediation. Results: The results of the final model, with partial mediation, have shown a high predictive capacity of social support on school adjustment and, in turn, on the adolescents’ well-being. In addition, a powerful effect of family support on subjective well-being of Peruvian adolescents has also been found. Conclusion: These results contribute to highlighting that subjective well-being is a central construct in the context of Positive Psychology and in the positive development of young people, which is why it should be cultivated more abundantly in schools.


Keywords:
Positive psychology, perceived social support, school adaptation, satisfaction with life, positive and negative emotions

Artículo Completo
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