Cómo el sexo moldea la evolución del comportamiento: el caso de las preferencias en la reproducción humana

How sex shapes the evolution of behavior: The case of preferences in human reproduction

Leonardo Moreno Naranjo , Germán Gutiérrez

Suma Psicológica, (2021), 28(1), pp. 25-36.

Recibido el 2 de marzo de 2020
Aceptado el 2 de noviembre de 2020

https://doi.org/10.14349/sumapsi.2021.v28.n1.4

Resumen

La reproducción sexual es uno de los grandes hitos de la evolución de la vida en la Tierra; si bien pudo facilitar la generación de variabilidad genética, también impuso una serie de retos adaptativos en los organismos, tales como la búsqueda de parejas y las estrategias para asegurar la reproducción. La teoría de selección sexual ofrece hipótesis que permiten explicar cómo la búsqueda y la selección de parejas no son aleatorias o arbitrarias en los organismos complejos. Se plantea que existen unos criterios para seleccionar parejas reproductivas que se ven reflejados en mecanismos psicológicos denominados preferencias, las cuales pueden orientar la elección de parejas que tengan rasgos adaptativos y beneficiar o bien la supervivencia, o bien la reproducción futura de la descendencia que herede tales caracteres. El presente artículo aborda cómo las condiciones que impone la sexualidad moldean la evolución del comportamiento y cómo aquellos principios se aplican al emparejamiento humano. A partir de esto se plantean las principales preguntas que derivan de esta relación entre evolución, preferencias y selección de pareja.


Palabras clave:
Preferencias, selección sexual, selección de pareja

Abstract

Sexual reproduction is one of the greatest landmarks of the evolution of life on Earth. Although it helped the generation of genetic variability, it also imposed a series of adaptive challenges in organisms, such as the search for mates and strategies to secure reproduction. The theory of sexual selection offers hypotheses to explain that the search and selection of a mate are not arbitrary for complex organisms. It is proposed that there are criteria for selecting reproductive mates that are reflected in psychological mechanisms called preferences, which can guide the choice of partners who have adaptive traits and can benefit, either survival or future reproduction of the offspring that inherit such traits. This review addresses how the conditions imposed by sexuality shape the evolution of behavior, and how those principles apply to human mating behavior. From there, important questions arise to understand the relationship among evolution, preferences and mate selection.


Keywords:
Preferences, sexual selection, mate selection

Artículo Completo
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